The influence of the sociology of mental health and illness goes well beyond its sociological roots; its major theoretical perspectives interact with major research streams in psychiatry, psychology, anthropology, public health, and medicine (Aneshensel and Phelan 1999; Horwitz and Scheid 1999; Eaton 2001; Gallagher 2002; Cockerham 2005). This general finding was confirmed by the NCS (Kessler and Zhao 1999). Master of Social Work Clinical Research Papers School of Social Work 5-2012 ... but little is known about the effectiveness and utilization of school-based mental health services. NIMH also funded a series of replications of the NCS in 2000 to 2003 (Kessler et al. “The Stress Process.” Journal of Health and Social Behavior 22:337–56. Surveys in representative community populations, using clinically validated questions that identify and classify mental disorder symptoms by diagnostic categories, are the current tools used to estimate the prevalence of disorders (Cockerham 2005). If you need a thorough research paper written according to all the academic standards, you can always turn to our experienced writers for help. Another advance would come through more detailed studies of how stressors are distributed in the population at large. Also check our tips on how to write a research … Aneshensel, Carol and Jo C. Phelan. Horwitz and Scheid (1999) outlined two major approaches in the study of the sociology of mental health and illness. Singer, Burton H. and Carol D. Ryff. Download Ebook Mental Health Research Paper Sample Mental Disorder Research Paper Free Essay Example. 1951. Future Directions in the Sociology of Mental Health, E. The Biological Perspective on Mental Disorders. The application of the sociological approach to mental health generates considerable empirical work that focuses on economic and other types of social stratification as determinants of mental health and mental disorder. Here, the emphasis is on programs in the community geared at improving the mental health … “Life Course Perspectives on Mental Health.” Pp. The presence of sociologists in interdisciplinary efforts to understand the causes, course, and consequences of mental illness and disorders is a positive situation; the influence of the sociology of mental health on other disciplines is tangible. Reviews of research on social support and social integration (e.g., Berkman and Glass 2000; Cohen et al. According to statistical data from online databanks and information gathered from interviews and surveys, America possesses the largest population of mentally ill inmates. The COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) pandemic is a collective stressor unfolding over time; yet, rigorous empirical studies addressing its mental health consequences among large probability-based national samples are rare. Mental health, mental illness, social and mental functioning, and its social indicators are a classic theme in the field of sociology. d.createElement(s),e=d.getElementsByTagName(s)[0];z.set=function(o){z.set. “Lifetime and 12-month Prevalence of DSM-IIIR Psychiatric Disorders in the United States: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey.” Archives of General Psychiatry 51:8–19. In an overview of the sociology of mental health, Thoits (1999) argued that there is no strong evidence that labeling or other societal reaction processes produce mental illness. New directions in the field include (1) a focus on comorbidity and severity of illness and its social impact, (2) the need for a closer connection between epidemiology and research on mental health services and policy, (3) the press to develop better measures of stressor exposure, (4) demand for more sophisticated measures and analyses of social resources, and (5) and the challenge of biological research on the stress process to the sociological study of mental health. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. Concepts are freely borrowed along the border of sociology and psychiatry/psychology. “The Life History Calendar: A Technique for Collecting Retrospective Data.” Sociological Methodology 18:37–68. Shanahan, Michael J. and Scott M. Hofer. 2003). As a consequence of the host of influences on the field, there is considerable disagreement over the measurement of basic concepts in research, including how to define mental health and disorders (Kessler and Zhao 1999), environmental factors such as stressors, location, and socioeconomic status (Wheaton 1999); and social consequences such as disability, labeling, and social isolation (Horwitz and Scheid 1999; Pillemer et al. 2003. View Mental Health Research Papers on Academia.edu for free. “Space Meets Time: Integrating Temporal and Contextual Influences on Mental Health in Early Adulthood.” American Sociological Review 68:680–706. Research diagnostic measures of mental disorder are controversial on many dimensions. Promo code: cd1a428655, Biological and Genetic Determinants of Mental Health, DNA and Genetic Engineering Research Paper, Children’s Mental Health Services Research Paper, Mental Health and Physical Health Research Paper, Mental Health and Substance Abuse Research Paper, Mental Health Epidemiology Research Paper, Mental Health Morbidity and Impact Research Paper, Mental Health Resources and Services Research Paper, Social Determinants of Mental Health Research Paper, Biological and Genetic Determinants of Mental Health Research Paper, Antisocial Personality Disorder Research Paper, Borderline Personality Disorder Research Paper. These two approaches are: (1) the social contexts producing or shaping mental health and disorder and (2) the recognition, treatment, and policy response to mental illness and disorder. 1999. Shanahan, Michael J., Scott M. Hofer, and Lilly Shanahan. 1999. Bronfenbrenner, Urie. 1993. The NCS has been widely emulated and expanded. See for yourself why we're the world's leading academic writing company. McLeod, Jane D. and Karen Kaiser. The Character of Danger: Psychiatric Symptoms in Selected Communities. “Linking Life Histories and Mental Health: A Person-Centered Strategy.” Pp. Further, the predictive power of the two constructs with regard to future drug use was investigated. They believed that this is because the two fields of research operate on different levels of analysis, one at the individual level and the other at the social or institutional level. Childhood poverty was linked to psychiatric impairment in adulthood (an early application of the life course perspective on mental health). The Inner American: A Self-Portrait from 1957–1976. Repetti, Rena, Shelley Taylor, and Teresa Seeman. Their progress through life resembles the life path of “social selection.” Third, the acceptance that mental disorders are real physical entities, and the evidence for comorbidity are challenges to the environmental perspective on mental disorders. 1994). Suicide. No matter what class students are taking, a research paper on the topic of mental illness is an excellent subject to look at. Read more. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. “Acute Stressors and Cortisol Responses: A Theoretical Integration and Synthesis of Laboratory Research.” Psychological Bulletin 130:355–91. “Social Integration and Support.” Pp. Applying the life course perspective model on mental health would ultimately require more sophisticated measures on how stressors combine and interact across time. Mental Health in the Metropolis: The Midtown Manhattan Study. 1981). The Ecology of Human Development: Experiments by Nature and Design. The controversy begins with the outcomes. Sensation seeking, however, had a relatively high degree of stability. 1981. Applying the life course perspective to studying mental disorders and health over time has led to concern about the reliability and validity of retrospective measures of stressor exposure (Wethington et al. Men, in turn, are more likely to report alcohol and drug disorders, violent behavior, and other indicators of acting out. Yet there are serious impediments to the integration of sociological and biological research. Burnout among mental health professionals was seen to arise since the reorganization of the mental health care system in America (Acker, 2011). Given the relationship of socioeconomic status to mental health and disorders, it is logical to predict that rates of mental disorder in African Americans would be higher than the rates among white Americans because of the average lower socioeconomic status of blacks. In 1990 through 1992, NIMH funded the first national survey of mental disorders in the general U.S. population (n = 8,068), the National Comorbidity Survey (NCS; Kessler and Zhao 1999). 1978). 1984. “Public Conceptions of Mental Illness in 1950 and 1996: What Is Mental Illness and Is It to Be Feared?” Journal of Health and Social Behavior 41:188–207. Researchers debate the relative reliability and validity of self-report checklist and interview measures of life events that include detailed probes that enable investigators to rate the severity of life events (Wheaton 1999). “The Prevalence, Distribution, and Mental Health Correlates of Perceived Discrimination in the United States.” Journal of Health and Social Behavior 40:208–30. “Revised Prevalence of Mental Disorders in the United States.” Archives of General Psychiatry 59:115–23. This acceptance of a variation of the medical model remains controversial and is probably related to the distance perceived between the sociology of mental health and the more mainstream sociology of stratification. Social Origins of Depression. 2005. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association. These diagnostic instruments, derived from the third version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association (DSMIII), were coupled with interviews that measured environmental factors, social class, race, ethnicity, stressors, social relationships, and other factors believed to correlate with the risk of developing mental disorders. 1979. 1939. 2000. These measures included the estimated average “magnitude of change” scores in Social Readjustment Rating Scale (the SRRS: Holmes and Rahe 1967) and the Psychiatric Epidemiology Research Interview for Life Events (the PERI; Dohrenwend et al. The End of Stress as We Know It. The term also includes the study of personal and situational resources that preserve or restore the state of mental wellbeing. The most widely discussed is the tension among medical, environmental, and societal reaction perspectives on the causes, consequences, and appropriate treatment of mental disorders. Regardless of the topic, subject or complexity, we can help you write any paper! This research paper has pointed out a number of methodological difficulties in measuring stressor exposure and the lack of fit between the most widely used measures of stressor exposure and the newly emerging life course perspective. In addition, there is considerable creative tension between those who concentrate on establishing the incidence and prevalence of mental disorders and those who focus more on the correlates of mental health and mental illness (Mirowsky and Ross 2002, 2004). Westport, CT: Praeger. New York: Free Press. Many counselors work in hospitals with psychiatric patients or with mentally ill adults in continued day treatment programs. 2000. This is how your paper can get an A! Almost immediately, sociologists and other social researchers modified this assumption, finding that more explicit and comprehensive measurement of the characteristics of stressors often increased the amount of variance explained in the mental health outcome. The diathesis approach is widely applied in psychiatric research on mental disorders. New York: Oxford University Press. Singer, Burton H., Carol D. Ryff, Deborah Carr, and William J. Magee. New York: Wiley. 1998. Turner, R. Jay and Blair Wheaton. Here, the emphasis is on programs in the community geared at improving the mental Kessler, Ronald C., Wait Tat Chiu, Olga Demler, and Ellen E. Walters. Sociologists have developed measures of chronic stress exposure (Pearlin and Schooler 1978) and exposure to stressors and hassles on a daily basis (Almeida, Wethington, and Kessler 2002). What is the social distribution of protective social resources? As psychologists have developed a better understanding of mental illness, the treatments and care have changed over time. A complicating factor is that other mental health disciplines enforce higher standards of precision in measurement than does sociology. This research paper describes the history, application, and development in sociology of the study of mental health, illness, and disorders. The social reaction perspective argues that mental illness emerges from social strain processes that produce deviance. The life course approach assumes that there is an accumulation of the negative effects of differential stressor exposure across life that perpetuates and magnifies inequalities and that many of these processes originate in childhood (e.g., McLeod and Kaiser 2004; McLeod and Nonnemaker 2000). Thus, one major direction for sociological research in the future might be an emphasis on mental disorders as predictors, rather than outcomes, of social functioning and processes. 1995. Mental health refers to a state of well-being or alternatively, a state of mental normality, free of disorder or illness. New York: Springer. Merton, Robert. Persistent or recurring symptoms of sleeplessness, fatigue, sadness, loneliness, lack of appetite, and loss of interest in things in response to chronic stressors or unexpected life events can be unpleasant and disabling even if the sufferer does not show all of the symptoms of depression required for a diagnosis. 2000. 2002. McEwen, Bruce S. and Eliot Stellar. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Press. Members of the Sociology of Mental Health section of the American Sociological Association are employed in medical schools, schools of public health, schools of social work, and departments of human development. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. When theories of cause and measures of critical outcomes are shared with other disciplines, the question arises: What is the unique contribution of sociology to the study of mental health and illness? The medical model views mental disorders as diseases and prescribes medical treatment as the appropriate cure. The social psychological perspective contributes insight into the social and relational factors that provide resources for adjusting to environmental stressors and restoring mental health and well-being. 29–57 in A Handbook for the Study of Mental Illness, edited by A. V. Horwitz and T. L. Scheid. The Midtown Manhattan Study in the 1950s (Srole et al. 137–73 in Social Epidemiology, edited by L. F. Berkman and I. Kawachi. Sociobehavioral Data Analysis and Archiving in Aging. Sociologists (e.g., Pearlin et al. Government of Canada: Mental Health and Wellness 1963. The Sociology of Mental Disorders. In addition, the majority of studies using stressor exposure measures do not account for any interaction between combinations of particular types of stressors. 539–62 in Handbook of the Sociology of Mental Health, edited by C. Aneshensel and J. C. Phelan. 1996; Singer et al. 1981) have long pointed out that the process of adjusting to stressors is a critical component of sociological and social psychological theories of the stress process (Thoits 1995). Issues of causality and theoretical approach are controversial in the field. 1999. There is also a need for more research on the social distribution of resources that mitigate the impact of environmental challenges and stresses. “Measurement for a Human Science.” Journal of Health and Social Behavior 43:152–70. Finally, there is considerable research on the use of mental health services and on mental health policy. Most recently, psychologists have contributed to understanding variations in the relationships of different types of stressors (social loss vs. trauma and chronic vs. acute stressor exposure), to immune system function and cortisol activity (e.g., Dickerson and Kemeny 2004; Segerstrom and Miller 2004). window.$zopim||(function(d,s){var z=$zopim=function(c){z._.push(c)},$=z.s= The Sociology of Mental Disorders. “Hierarchies of Life Histories and Associated Health Risks.” Pp. Browse other research paper examples for more inspiration. Other researchers call for more attention to how mental disorders are measured and diagnosed in African Americans and other minority groups (e.g., Neighbors et al. type="text/javascript";e.parentNode.insertBefore($,e)})(document,"script"); Research Paper: A Sample Of Study On Mental Health, Research Paper: Story of “The Return of Martin Guerre”, Research Paper: Students’ Understanding of Plagiarism. “Childhood Emotional and Behavioral Problems and Educational Attainment.” American Sociological Review 69:636–58. The past Century has been a boom for the understanding of what constitutes mental health. Do differences in distribution explain group differences in mental health? First, the documentation of comorbidity has influenced sociologists in the field to accept that mental illness is an objective reality. Dickerson, Susan and Margaret Kemeny. 599–622 in Handbook of the Life Course, edited by J. T. Mortimer and M. J. Shanahan. Psychology, biology and neurochemistry are all a part of studying mental health and researching issues that you may be assigned for research papers. While mental disorders are often stigmatized, they are extremely common and manageable in many cases. The stressor exposure model also applies a variation of the dose-response paradigm widely used in medical research. Mirowsky, John and Catherine E. Ross. “Interview Measurement of Stressful Life Events.” Pp. 2000. McLeod, Jane D. and James M. Nonnemaker. 2000; Pillemer et al. “Sociological Approaches to Mental Illness.” Pp. There is also a controversy over whether dichotomous diagnoses of psychiatric disorder should be a proper outcome for sociological inquiry, in contrast to scales of distress symptoms (Kessler 2002; Mirowsky and Ross 2002). 1991. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. He has studied this through checking his subject’s behavior. There remains considerable controversy in the literature whether members of racial minority groups report higher rates of mental disorder than majority racial groups. “Stress, Health, and the Life Course: Some Conceptual Perspectives.” Journal of Health and Social Behavior 46:205–19. 2004. Hollingshead, August B. and Frederick C. Redlich. Text revision. Mental Health Research Paper This sample Mental Health Research Paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Press. We offer high-quality assignments for reasonable rates. “Social Contingencies in Mental Health: A Seven-Year Follow-Up Study of Teenage Mothers.” Journal of Marriage and the Family 62:777–91. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum. Thus, another challenge to sociologists of mental health is to incorporate techniques and measures that will powerfully represent the social context in multidisciplinary studies of mental health and mental disorders. Some insurers simply refused to cover mental illnesses at all. 1981. The term mental disorder is applied to a specific diagnosis of mental abnormality, such as depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, agoraphobia, mania or substance dependence. 2005. Umberson, Debra and Kristi Williams. Sociologists who study mental health compete for federal funds and intellectual prestige with those from other disciplines. Miech, Richard A., Avshalom Caspi, Terrie E. Moffitt, Bradley R. Entner Wright, and Phil A. Silva. 1999. Savoring summer with Chloe Wines. “Stress, Coping and Social Support Processes: Where Are We? 1956. Sociology and the Field of Mental Health.