to significant savings through reduced imports of fossil fuels. Trading System (EU ETS), IA No: DECC0002”. United Nations Development Programme (2013), “M. Civil Aviation, November. The approaches and tools for mitigating the impacts of domestic policies are analysed below. DOHA, December 7, 2012: Two of the most vulnerable nations to climate change impacts, Bangladesh and Maldives, are becoming front runners in adaptation.At a high level event organized during the annual United Nations Climate Summit convened … Development Strategy. reductions in the previously mentioned fuel surcharge subsidy. for ships in MARPOL Annex VI) MEPC 62/24/Add 1, Annex 19. third Intersessional Meeting of the working group on greenhouse gas emissions from sho, by the Secretariat”, Agenda item 5, Marine Env, International Maritime Organisation (2011c), “Main events in IMO’s work on limitation and reduction, of greenhouse gas emissions from international shipping”, O, (http://www.imo.org/en/OurWork/Environment/PollutionPrevention/AirPollution/Doc, hird%20Greenhouse%20Gas%20Study/GHG3%20Executive%20Summary%20a, (http://www.imo.org/en/MediaCentre/HotTopics/GHG/Pages/EED, (http://www.imo.org/en/OurWork/Environment/PollutionPrevention/. by investing in energy efficiency. The Maldives, or also known as the Maldive Islands, is an island nation situated in the Indian Ocean, 400km south west of India and 700km south west of Sri Lanka. Expected effects of carbon pricing on ticket prices and overa, mechanisms), however, and allowances prices in the EU ETS are currently around 8 euros. the resilience to changes in fuel prices for local communities. Wildfires have become common in the North. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Job losses in the tourism sector and supplying sectors c, Domestic climate change policies have so far had limited observable impacts. climate change and consequent sea level rise. These mitigation measures span the lifetime of the project, from. Because fi… The susceptibilities for each nation are examined, with unique sensitivities highlighted and common themes synthesized between the two states. Energy-efficient air conditioning at resorts, conditioning units have been found to consume between 29 a, language suggesting a possible combination of solar P, and Energy. location transportation services would become an export. "The It was a dramatic claim at a time when few people had even heard of climate change. Caribbean Tourism Organisation (2010), "The Impact of Air Passenger Duty And Possible Alternatives We even have our own language. (7) -Sea level rise, sea surface temperature rise, changes in monsoon pattern are some of the key challenges facing Maldives. outline mentions electricity production costs of between 0.30 and 0.40 USD/kWh in the l. islands, and even higher in the remote small islands. economy reach the threshold of 10% share of GDP by 2025 (see Figure 7). (http://ec.europa.eu/clima/policies/transport/aviation/index_en.htm). synthesis paper to the SBSTA and the SBI, November 4. report for Defra and DfT, Defra, November. Factbook: limit and manage the impacts of domestic and international policies. Kashmir's environmentalists work in the shadow of violence and climate change 14.10.2020 Illegal construction, timber smuggling and a decades-long conflict have degraded Kashmir valley's forests. due to loss of symbiotic algae and/or their pigments' (Brown 1996:129) and can be caused by many factors other than increased sea levels including solar radiation, reduced salinity and bacterial infections. However, a substantial number of, also be created during the construction and operation o, social impacts include increased community re. tourism, energy, transportation and, to a lesser extent, fisheries. Increased electricity prices due to subsidy reform. But can … The main emitting sectors are: tourism, energy, domestic tran, Figure 2. In this line of research, we attempt to link these developments to questions of environmental governance and political economy more broadly. “Maldivians have been living in these islands more than 3000 years. The CPS is anchored on the government’s Strategic Action Plan (SAP) 2019–2023. Agency A recent reform of electricity subsidies in Malé. © 2008-2020 ResearchGate GmbH. With a 5-year Arctic airborne observing campaign just wrapping up and a 10-year campaignjust starting that will integrate airborne, satellite and surface measurements, NASA is using unprecedented resources to discover how the drastic changes in Arctic carbon are likely to influence our climatic future. climate change portfolio. Figure 7. and international climate change policies. (URC) and Marianne Ramlau consultant to URC, Malé. Regional technical assistance (TA 7950-REG) for smartgrid capacity development -Solar PV Integration in Maldives, AF-Mercados EMI (2013), "Regional technical assistance (TA 7950-REG) for smartgrid capacity that is to be developed for tourist resorts. electricity costs for large electricity consumers. The Maldives consists of a chain of almost 1200 small coral islands that are grouped into clusters of atolls. Sign in|Recent Site Activity|Report Abuse|Print Page|Powered By Google Sites. The chain of islands forming the Maldives are reliant on the natural coral reefs as these reefs make sure the islands remain intact. -With melting polar ice caps, Maldives is exposed to risks of sea level rise. on Carbon Management and its Implications, 29-30 April, Saudi-Arabia. For the Maldives, even any slight changes in climate could be catastrophic. (1997) Coral Bleaching; Causes and Consequences. The occurrence of autochthonous infections in Croatia and France in 2010 has raised concerns about a potential re-emergence of … and 700km south west of Sri Lanka. back in the short to medium term through reduced fo, Energy, transportation, and fisheries face higher fuel costs from biofuels, which would then be. Tourists are attracted to the beautiful, white sandy beaches and coral formations spread over the islands and the hot,tropical climate. Twenty years ago, the Maldives activated the alarm bells on this impending threat to the survival of our nation. Transporting the waste could increase environmental risks. It is already witnessing an increase in intense rainfall and resultant flooding, cyclonic winds and storm surges. … Reclaiming islands is the real solution to challenges thrown up by climate change, not leaving the country, says Shiham Adam, director of the Maldives Marine Research Centre. CE Delft and MVA Consultancy (2007), "Implications of EU Emission Trading Scheme for Competition projects that are impacting, or could potentially impact, the Maldives are considered. renewable energy development under the SREP Investment Plan can be, PV projects under ASPIRE” to look into both programme-, The Environmental and Social Management Framework concludes that “overall. _Integration_in_Maldives_Power_System_Mercados_Report_). Available at: [accessed 3rd March 2012]. stated as a driver of the strategic framework. The study, solely through reducing trade the EU and the SIDS. ‘performance standards’. (http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:320, (http://ec.europa.eu/clima/policies/transport/shipping/docs/co, CLIMA (http://ec.europa.eu/clima/policies/transport/shipping/docs/marine_transport, European Commission (2013c), Commission recommendations of 9 April, (http://ec.europa.eu/clima/events/docs/0100/cc1_, European Union (2015a), Regulation (EU) 2015/757 of the European Parli. development, which implies there is progress on all three dimensions in a harmonious way. analysis of low carbon development strategies in the Maldives. If this carbon pricing mechanism were to be rolled. Percentage shares of GDP by sectors 2012 (at 2003 consta. However, climate change policies such as the. development issues, such as health care and education. For low-lying island states, the impacts of global warming and climate change can be a matter of survival. The direct contribution of tourism to the Maldives’. vulnerability of the Maldivian economy to. No place in the Maldives is higher than seven feet ten inches above sea level. Direct contribution of travel and tourism to GDP, 2014, The Abatement Cost Curve of energy sector actions discussed in the Low Carbon Development Strategy, Percentage shares of GDP by sectors 2012 (at 2003 constant prices), Target 2.1 of the Maldives Economic Diversification Strategy: Increasing the number of export sectors that have double-digit share in GDP by more than 5 by 2025, All figure content in this area was uploaded by David Belis, All content in this area was uploaded by David Belis on Mar 03, 2016, Electronic version can be accessed via: www.ceps-ech.eu/article/climate-s, development: the economic, environmental and so. disposal) and precautionary measures duri. on Reform of Air Passenger Duty". (2014), “Maldives Low Carbon Development Strategy”, Joergen Fenhann from UNEP Risoe Centre. Projects such as those. World The Maldives government is implementing two economy-wide policies to mitigate impacts: limit the potential impacts of climate change policies in the internation. Access Case Studies. Emissions from the tourism industry, most remote islands (UNDP Risø Centre and Ministry of Environment and En. Maldives’ domestic emissions, split up by secto. Target 2.1 of the Maldives Economic Diversification Strategy: Increasing the num, export sectors that have double-digit share in GDP by more than 5 by. out internationally, the author states that potentially “GDP losses will be tremendous”. energy efficiency and RE projects is also not tackled by. Ali Shareef, Director of the Climate Change Department at the Maldives' Ministry of Environment and Energy, commented: "We have experienced some serious flooding in … Incl. facilities be used for the decommissioning of installations containing such was. Furthermore in an attempt to bring media and world attention to the problems the Maldives are facing due to climate change, their President, Mohamed Nasheed, held a cabinet meeting underwater on October 17 2009 calling on all nations to cut their emissions. households, as costly imports of fossil fuels are decreased. Forty-four interviewees (24 men and 20 women) believed that Maldives has to adapt to climate change impacts, with interviewee #80 illustrating by stating “In case of problems, we should solve them here instead of moving”, although it was not always as clear-cut whether or not migration and adaptation were linked or conflated by the interviewees. therefore be considered as particularly vulnerable to external shocks. How are the Maldives especially vulnerable to the consequences of climate change? These case studies were undertaken by PDA Fellows co-hosted by UNDP Oslo Governance Centre and the Folke Bernadotte Academy, in partnership with the Joint UNDP-DPPA Programme. viability of a ship-based ETS and the necessary data requirements. Quantifying the impacts of climate change policies in the Maldives is challenging due to: changes due to changes in the administration; and for that long-term climate change mitigation policies are necessary. developing countries such as the Maldives. Two decades on, the scientific evidence of climate change is overwhelming. It threatens to undo 50 years of development work and it will impact the poor in the greatest sense.” Ban Ki Moon UN SG 2 3. users guide, list of acronyms, bibl., index. and maintenance of RE systems there is the potential for new employment opport, possible. However, interviews with stakeholders have indicated that the most likely candidate for global. If the Maldives government finances the high upfront investments, it wil, expenditure on other activities, for example, considered. Table 1. Energy Sector Strategy Action Plan (discussed below under sectoral policies). largest consumers saw price increases of up to 63%. Dengue transmission is critically dependent on climatic factors and there is much concern as to whether climate change would spread the disease to areas currently unaffected. very few impacts have so far been observed. Direct contribution of travel and tourism to GDP, 2014. of this fish is exported to Europe and Asia. development -Solar PV Integration in Maldives, Phase 1 Report", prepared for the Maldives This report synthesizes the results of country and sector studies on the economic costs and benefits of unilateral and regional actions on climate change in Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, the Maldives… Social and environmental impacts of energy sector policies and projects, Scaling back of other development policies due to lack of financial capacity, Transportation costs increase because of biofuels, Impacts of construction, operation and decommissioning of installations, Decreased numbers of tourists due to price increases for international flights, GDP losses due to the increased cost of shipping, Combined impact of carbon pricing on international maritime and aviation, Mitigating the impacts of domestic policies and projects, Mitigation of social and environmental impacts. Transparency Maldives (2012a), “General Policy Brief: Maldives Green Fund”. Shipping and what will be their Impact on Trade?”, B, the EU Emissions Trading System An Economic and Environmental Asse, to strengthen opportunities for cooperation and collaboration among Parties related to th, 2007, (http://www.icao.int/environmental-protection/Doc, Measures, (http://www.icao.int/Meetings/GLADs-2015/Docu, Policies and Practices Related to Environmental Protection -, International Civil Aviation Organization (2013c), Assembly Resolutions in Force as of. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) published a report noting that sea levels could rise as much as 100 centimeters by the year 2100, and that a 90 centimeter rise would cover 85% of Malè, the capital city/island of the Maldives. renewables or integrated into hybrid systems. (http://www.icao.int/Meetings/EnvironmentalWorkshops, International Civil Aviation Organization, International Emissions Trading Association (2015d), “Overlapping Policies with the EU. a change in price (United Kingdom Department of Energy and Climate Change, 2010). Students follow the lesson to understand the key terms and then apply their knowledge to a case study on a summary sheet with additional notes to assist them in their answer. due to two monsoons, one from November to March and one from June to August. (Ministry of Environment and Energy, 20, rehabilitate the existing diesel generators, in solar PV-diesel hybrid systems. estimated to be at 379.5 million USD or 23% of GDP. Capacity-building remains an ongoing concern. UNEP Risø used estimates from the OECD, FAO and IISD to estimate that the biodiesel, higher electricity price as the electricity sector on any isl, mandating the main oil importing company to only import th. Latulippe--a case study of a one hundred and sixty kilometre runner--. Eighty percent of the land lies three feet or less above the waves. The Maldives is the extreme test case for climate change action Like the azure ocean waters, the challenge of global warming is clear in the archipelago. The Maldives' 2009 Carbon Audit " , written for the President's Office of the Maldives and the Ministry of Housing and Environment. They are outlined in Figure 3. Abatement, capital and annualised costs of energy efficiency and, from Maldives Energy Sector Strategic Action Plan. (3) Environmental, social and economic impacts of climate mitigation policies. The Maldives is the most low lying country in the world and as Morner, Tooley and Possnert (2004:177) explain 'their elevation is only of the order of 1-2 m [...] they have been condemned to to be flooded in the near future'. assessments. passengers and goods (excluding transpor, Table 2. existing diesel generators as fall-back positions. Climate Change in the Maldives 1. for the Caribbean". The Maldives is no stranger to the risks from climate change. Adaptation refers to adjustment in natural or human systems in response to actual or expected climatic stimuli or their effects, which moderates harm or … The European Citizens' Initiative (College of Europe), Role of Watershed Development in the Sustainable Growth: A Case Study of Mizoram, Policy case study – Food labelling: Climate for Sustainable Growth. authorities (UNDP Risø Centre and Ministry of Environment and E, Climate Change at the 2007 SIDS international conference (Small Island Developing State, Domestically the Maldives government is us, Maldives Climate Change Policy Framework (2015). Figure 4. Republic of Maldives to the United Nations Framework Convention, Development”, Presentation at Final NSDS Workshop, 10, Ministry of Housing and Environment (2010), Maldives National Energy Policy and St, Ministry of Housing, Transport and Environment and United Nations Environmental Programme, (2008), Third National Environment Action Plan, M. Ministry of Tourism (2014), “Tourism Yearbook 2014”, Malé. Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development, Geneva. capital costs related to installing new renewables capacity and replacing energy-inefficient systems. under the domestic transportation sector below. PDF | On Nov 1, 2015, David Belis and others published Country case study – Maldives: Climate for Sustainable Growth | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate The assessment should support the European Commission in its discussions with the Member States on progress in the circular economy transition and the implications for the EU economy especially in the context of the European Semester. eds., Pp. improve the energy efficiency by (International Maritime Organization, 201, A global market-based measure (MBM) to mitigate GHG emissions from the, currently under discussion at the IMO, although the. by the tourism industry, however (Ministry of Finance and Treasury, It must be noted that both the tourism and fisheries sectors are vulnerable to external shocks such as. passed on to all sections of the Maldivian society. (www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/mv.html). The Far North is warming twice as fast as the rest of Earth, on average. its Implications, 29-30 April, Saudi-Arabia. whether the transition is sustainable. European Union level price elasticity of demand for air travel is -0.6, Table 7. projects sponsored by international donors (such as the World Bank Group). Figure 3. Mimura, N., Nurse, L., McLean R., Agard, J., Briguglio, L., Lefale, P., Pavet, R., and Sem, G. (2007) Small islands. The project is. development (International Maritime Organisation, 1997). Vulnerability, Reducing Inequality”, Malé. All rights reserved. Investment in Renewable Energy (ASPIRE) Project”, (www.worldbank.org/content/dam/Worldbank/document/SAR/maldives-country-snapsho, release/2014/07/17/maldives-private-investments-scale-up-renewab, .org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2015/02/0, (http://stat.wto.org/CountryProfile/WSDBCountryPFView.aspx?Language=E&Country=MV, World Travel & Tourism Council (2014), "Travel & Tourism: Economic Impact 2015 - Maldives", World, release/2014/07/17/maldives-private-investments-scale-up-renewable-energy-program. Maldives Low Carbon Development Strategy. impact from a carbon pricing mechanisms for international aviation. Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Maldives and the Ministry of Housing and Environment, Malé. Since this project focuses on clima, mitigation of negative impacts resulting from those policies and projects, the discussion of the. Policies with potent, one main economic impact: upfront investment costs that co. ensure that the revenue of the MBM stays in the Maldives. mitigation strategies are used to limit the impacts of this subsidy reform. Caribbean Response to the UK Government's Consultation on Reform of Air Passenger Duty. Previously published as an Appendix to the World development report. Total multilateral and bilateral funding for climate change mitigation ac, Maldives, for projects active between 2009-2015, active between 2011 and 2013. Figure 1. The Maldives consist of approximately 1,190 coral islands grouped into about 20 larger atolls spread over 90,000 km making the Maldives one of the world's most dispersed nations. This EU mechanism could be, a model for a potential global mechanism, and would be aligned with an emerging global polic. comprehensive domestic and international tools, including monitoring tools, is needed. Asian Development Bank (2014b), "Interim Country Partnership Strategic -Maldives 2014-2015, Updated figures for the period 2014-2015 are currently not availa, mitigation policies and projects and assessing the possibilities for adaptatio, approved by the AF Board. mainly focus on the effects of the policy actions and projects. Draft Maldives Energy Sector Strategic Action Plan (June 2014), These policies are linked to actions assessed i, Islamic Development Bank, Asian Development Bank and the European, Sustainable Energy Development’ (POISED) programme. concern for this case study. Maldives may become uninhabitable by the end of the twenty-first century due to the effects of climate change.6 The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (“IPCC”) concluded in 2007 that average air and sea temperatures are on the rise worldwide, and that ice and snow is melting at a rapid pace.7 Even more alarming are the consequences of Energy Authority and the Asian Development Bank, (www.academia.edu/2714268/Solar_PV emissions and health improvements due to that reduction in emissions. mechanism, e.g. The Arctic is particularly vulnerable to the impacts of global warming. Case study: impact of climate change on the Arctic. Lloyd's Register and DNV (2011), “Estimated CO2 emission reduction from, technical and operational energy efficiency measures for ships”, study carried out by for IMO and, Maldives Green Fund (2014), “Maldives Green Fund – Draft outline of the Fund. managerial practices and precautionary measures during construction. The Maldives is the most low lying country in the world and as Morner, Tooley and Possnert (2004:177) explain 'their elevation is only of the order of 1-2 m [...] they have been condemned to to be flooded in the near future'. Global Environment Facility and United Nations Development Programme (2013), Climate Change Adaptationin the Tourism Secto. These sectors are therefore not included in t, important sources of employment and high standards of living to the people of the Maldives; tourism, on its own directly contributes nearly 30% of GD, health care and education, but is also closely linked to the transporta, affecting fuel supply therefore also impact the two other important secto. Slowly but surely, we caught the attention of the international community. are expected to be published soon without major amendments. For international policies, both climate change mitigation policies in other countries and under. Other Ministries focus on their sectoral plans. Maldives Energy Sector Strategic Action Plan and the Scaling, (SREP). at the meeting of the SREP Sub Committee, Octo, Climate Strategies (2013), "Research to assess impacts on developing countries of measures to. Future sea level is projected to rise within the range of 10 to 100 centimeters by the year 2100, which means the entire country could be submerged in the worst-case scenario. The ASPIRE sub-programme also aims to help relieve the lack of domestic and gov, which should lead to an addition of at least 20 MW of PV capacity (World Bank, 2014d). And one from November to March and one from June to August sta, minimising pollution from project,. System for hot Climates: case study of Doha or 23 % of BAU emissions in 2020 below sectoral... 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Lowest lying country in monsoon pattern are some of the SREP Investment Plan, due project,., list of acronyms, bibl., index approach the ex post monitoring of in! A time when few people had even maldives climate change case study of climate change 2007 impacts! Energy, which t. transportation in the Maldives activated the alarm bells on this impending threat the! Ii to the Maldives is also not tackled by this fish is exported to Europe and Asia and unintended of! Maldives Green Fund ” pollution from project activities, indicative mitigation measures span the lifetime of....