This demonstrates the important idea that collective structures, such, as a traffic jam, behave differently from the individual elements that compose, them. The idea that leadership might be no more than an emergent property of a, complex dynamic system is an exceptionally bold thesis, especially in the light, of most understandings, and can only be justified on a case by case basis. Educational management, also sometimes known as educational administration, is commonly associated with elementary and secondary schools as well as institutes of higher learning like colleges and universities. Leaders in these executive roles work toward finding ways to improve learning and to improve the process of educating students. Clancey, 1997; Collins. Second, we are persuaded, that it is fruitful to think of cognition as situated. 1. The descriptive study offers insights into the nature of this emergent literature from a single non-Western society. While the folk-theoretic notions of thought and action at the centre of, common-sense beliefs about leadership are a useful starting-point in, compressing the data of organizational life, the pressure to account coherently, for a wider range of phenomena within the context of natural science prompts, revisions, in our view, of a more radical kind. infinite series of points (0, 0), (1, 1), (2, 2), all the data can be compressed into the short formula, But compressibility comes in grades. officers, educational researchers, are using different terms and concepts in different ways and lack of standardization is causing a considerable confusion among them. For in navigating a successful path through the complex flux of social life, it is, quite often sufficient merely to do somewhat better than chance. connection strengths between neurons and their associated geometry. Of course, researchers have got to start somewhere. The virtue of derivability can thus transform smoothly, from a structural constraint into a significant force for content choice over what. (2001), ``Knowing how to lead: theoretical reflections on inference to the best. of problems about administrative practice and the nature of practical knowledge. Furthermore, the idea that knowledge is ``situated', has recently become prominent, and the problem of how to account for transfer, of knowledge between differently structured situations occupies the thinking of, writers in the field (e.g. And to account for, uniqueness, specificity, or even nuances, adding a mentorship scheme has, The lack of closure of these suggested answers to the training issue should. Then, some examples are offered focused on the. This strategy debates the search method according to the best position of particle and average convergence speed. another. But we now know that this, distinction cannot be drawn in the required way, mainly because the language, of observation makes use of theory. Posed in this way, the problem, of appropriate training is one of successful transfer of acquired knowledge, The consensus of writers concerned with administrator training is that the, required transfer of knowledge is not taking place. Provides an overview of a rather large research program, developed over the last 15 years, that seeks to offer a new perspective on the nature of theory and practice in educational administration. Because of logical empiricism's hierarchy of generality, traditional science of, educational administration looks more like one of its parents ± administrative, theory ± than the other ± educational theory. Educational administration is a discipline within the study of education that examines the administrative theory and practice of education in general and educational institutions and educators in particular. We have followed Quine's epistemology (Quine, 1951, 1960, 1969; Quine and, Ullian, 1978) in seeing, at least initially, a global theory as a fabric of sentences. “Theory and practice of the organisation and administration of existing educational establishments and systems.” —G. Rather, they, in the manner of complex systems, are. Then different schools are identified with a record for, corresponding outstanding practices. A, more plausible general thesis, however, is that much leadership practice is, distributed in a lesser sense. Resnick (2000, p. 3) makes the point that the bird, in front just happens to find itself there, and that to imbue it with the, connotations carried by the term ``leader', By simulating traffic flows in his StarLogo program, designed to model the, behaviour of complex systems, Resnick (2000, pp. But we also argue that there exists a basic misunderstanding with, regard to the implied, causally efficacious nature of the situation (university, versus practice), on the one hand, and the type of knowledge acquired as. a matter primarily of reduction to some observational, or measurement, procedure. , Columbia University Press, New York, NY. Ce texte analyse l'intérêt de la problématique du rapport au savoir pour la formation des enseignants. However, when dealing with the engineering control problems, the goal function is usually unknown and discrete. Most of the time, teachers and administrators know what will happen in a wide variety of school, We can capture this level of regularity by making use of an idea contained, in Chaitin's (1975, 1999) work on algorithmic information theory. Another way in which this kind of thinking becomes evident in, everyday life is that the usual account given of a traffic jam, for example, is that, a car must have broken down, or that some other identifiable single cause, occasioned the jam. We have said little about the identification of prototypical administrative, situations as an element of training, although this approach coheres nicely with, a pattern recognition view of cognition. Design/methodology/approach – The authors use a simple two-stage model with environmental R&D and endogenously determined abatement costs to address, Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is well known for dealing with complex nonlinear problems. They, then spend several days in one of these different schools, researching how that. When applied to very systematic, theorizing about educational administration, it means that the capacity of, knowledge in the field to be derived from a more inclusive body of knowledge, is a virtue. The significance of planning lies in arranging specialist training programmes and different roles of different personnel as attached to the educational institution and also the functions that are undertaken in realizing such objectives and aims.